Cataract is caused by the clouding of the natural lens of the eye and usually develops as a result of old age, but may occur in infants and young children too. This results in blurred vision, glare, and sensitivity to bright lights. As the disease progresses, it leads to painless, progressive decrease in vision which can also result in a poor quality of life, interfering with day-to-day activities like driving and reading.

Cataract development is a normal process of aging. Any person may develop it sooner or later. Cataract can also be present from birth. Researchers across the world have recognized factors that are associated with the formation as well as the development of cataract. Besides increasing age, cataract risk factors include:

  • Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight and other sources
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Prolonged use of corticosteroid medications
  • Statin medicines used to reduce cholesterol
  • Previous eye injury or inflammation
  • Previous eye surgery
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Significant alcohol consumption
  • High myopia
  • Family history

Generally cataracts occur slowly and form few signs until they noticeably block light. Some of symptoms may include:

  • Cloudy, foggy, filmy or blurry vision
  • Color seem faded or altered
  • Progressive nearsightedness in older people often called “second sight” as they may no longer need reading glasses.
  • Problems during driving at night such as glare from oncoming headlights
  • Problems with glare (sensitivity to bright lamps or sun)
  • Double vision (like a superimposed image)
  • Rapid changes in glasses prescription

To a certain level, cataract affected vision can be corrected with prescription eye-glasses including contacts or bifocals. However, beyond a certain point prescription glasses may be ineffective and surgical options have to be considered. In a cataract surgery, the patients’ cloudy lens is removed and replaced with a transparent Intra Ocular Lens (IOL) to restore good quality vision. Today, cataract surgery is one of the fastest, safest and the most accurate surgical procedures. One of the well-known cataract Surgeries is Phacoemulsification (also called as key-hole surgery). This surgery is done with the help of machine known as Phaco machine, to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with a clear artificial lens called as Intra Ocular Lens (IOL). Micro Incisional Cataract Surgery (MICS) is another well-known cataract surgery. In this surgery, phaco machine is used to send a probe through a 1.8 mm incision in the cornea and remove the cataract.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy is a disease, referring to the damage of small blood vessels in your retina, the back part of eye. Diabetes also increases your risk of having glaucoma, cataracts, and other eye problems. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye. Diabetic retinopathy has no symptoms until the damage to your eyes is severe.

There are two stages of diabetic retinopathy:
Nonproliferative develops first
Proliferative is more advanced and severe

Most often, diabetic retinopathy has no symptoms until the damage to your eyes is severe.
Blurred vision or slow vision loss over time
Shadows or missing areas of vision
Problem seeing at night

Laser surgery is used to prevent a bleed in the eye and it also helps in reducing the edema. However, it is not found successful in restoring vision lost due to the retinal damage. To avoid this, laser surgery should be appropriately timed.
Periocular or Intraocular injection of steroids can also help reduce swelling of the retina (macular oedema).
Advanced cases with non-resolving bleed in the eye or retinal detachment require advanced microsurgery. Today with highly advanced technology, good visual results can be achieved in a large number of advanced cases also.

Squint (Crossed Eye Disorder)

Squint (Strabismus) is a disease that generally affects children. It refers to the misalignment of the two eyes so that both the eyes are not looking in the same direction. This misalignment may be constant, being present throughout the day or it may appear sometimes and the rest of the time the eyes may be straight.

The most common signs are:

  • Deviation of eyes
  • Double vision
  • Misalignment of eyes

The exact cause of squint is not known. The movement of each eye is controlled by six muscles. Each of these muscles act along with its counterpart in the other eye to keep both the eyes aligned properly. A loss of coordination between the muscles of the two eyes leads to misalignment.

The objectives of treatment are to restore vision, straighten the eyes, and restore binocular vision.

Squint surgery is a day care surgery and is done to treat squint. During surgery, one or more muscles are weakened or strengthened (by moving their attachment backward or forward) to make the eye straight. The procedure is done under local anaesthesia in adults and general anaesthesia in children.

It is extremely rare that more than one operation is needed. Sometimes the squint is too large and hence a two-stage surgery is planned. The world over average is 2.3 operations to achieve ideal correction of squint.

Vision Rehabilitation

I Vision is used in the completion of almost all daily activities. Loss of vision will require a period of training, adaptation and the learning of new skill. During this period the person is likely to require help from another person several times a day with a range of activities.

Vision Rehabilitation provides

  • Coping with vision loss
  • Age appropriate milestones
  • Independent daily living activities
  • Guidance in selecting better model and method of education
  • Travelling safety
  • Taking care of the home
  • Meeting career objectives
  • Enjoying leisure activities


Vitreoretinal diseases are conditions that affect structures in the eye called the retina and the vitreous. The retina is the light-sensitive layer in the back of the eye that focuses images and transmits that information to the brain via the optic nerve. The vitreous is a clear gel that fills the space between the lens (in the front of the eye) and the retina.

Vitreoretinal diseases are conditions that affect any one of these structures. Because the retina and macula are integral to vision, a disease in this part of the eye can temporarily or permanently diminish vision.

  • Night blindness.
  • Floaters in the visual field, especially the sudden onset of spots.
  • Dimming in central or peripheral vision.
  • Flashes of light.
  • Severe eye pain.
  • Sudden vision loss.
  • Distortion of printed words when reading.
  • Distortion in central vision, such as wavy lines.
  • Extreme light sensitivity.

  • High myopia (extreme nearsightedness)
  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (a breakdown of tissues in the back of the eye)
  • Diabetic eye disease (disease that affects the blood vessels in the back of the eye)
  • Retinal vein occlusion (a blockage of veins in the retina)

Vitreoretinal conditions can be severe and may cause vision loss. In many cases, treatment is available to preserve vision and slow the progression of vision deterioration. Treatment methods are developed based on the type of retinal damage and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medication may be administered to support visual function. Sometimes, as in the case of retinal detachment, a minor surgical procedure may be necessary. To test macula Amsler Grid test(Android application) is used.


It is a group of eye conditions that sometimes lead to the damage of the optic nerve. This nerve plays a crucial role in transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. In most cases, damage to the optic nerve is primarily caused due to increased pressure in the eye, known as Intraocular Pressure (IOP). Glaucoma has been called the "silent thief of sight" because the loss of vision often occurs gradually over a long period, and symptoms only occur when the disease is quite advanced. Worldwide, glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness after cataracts.

Mainly, there are four types of glaucoma:
  • Open-angle glaucoma
  • Angle-closure (acute) glaucoma
  • Congenital glaucoma
  • Secondary glaucoma
Open-angle glaucoma

Most people have no symptoms
Once vision loss occurs, the damage is already severe
There is a slow loss of side (peripheral) vision (also called tunnel vision)
Advanced glaucoma can lead to blindness

Angle-closure (acute) glaucoma

Symptoms may come and go at first, or steadily become worse
Sudden, severe pain in one eye
Decreased or cloudy vision, often called "steamy" vision
Nausea and vomiting
Rainbow-like halos around lights
Eye feels swollen

Congenital glaucoma

Symptoms are generally noticed when the child is a few months old
Cloudiness of the front of the eye
Enlargement of one eye or both eyes
Sensitivity to light

Open-angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma and its cause is not known. This type of glaucoma generally runs in families.
Angle-closure glaucoma is an emergency. This is completely different from open-angle and slowly damages vision. Its causes are dilating eye drops and certain medications.
Congenital glaucoma is generally found in babies and caused by abnormal eye development.
Secondary glaucoma is caused by eye diseases such as uveitis, systemic diseases, and trauma.

The best treatment of glaucoma is to keep eye pressure near normal range which stops further damage. Doctors suggest eye drops, laser or surgery.
Laser Surgery is found to be effective in treating some types of glaucoma. In open angle variety, trabeculoplasty is done where the drainage angles are treated by laser to increase the outflow of aqueous fluid and lower the eye pressure. In narrow angle glaucoma, a hole is made in the iris - peripheral iridotomy, to restore the flow of aqueous fluid to drainage angles.
The surgery used for treating glaucoma is called microscopic filtering surgery – trabeculectomy. During the surgery, a small drainage channel is created for the exit of fluid which helps in lowering the eye pressure. It is done under local anaesthesia and the patient needs to be in the hospital for a couple of hours only.

Other Eye Health Facilities Available

  • Intravitreal Injection
  • Itchy Eyes
  • Keratoconus
  • Lacrimal probing in children
  • Laer Eye Surgery
  • Meibomian Gland Dysfunction MGD)
  • Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery
  • Myopia
  • Paediatric Strabismus
  • Posterior Vitreous Detachment
  • Post Operative Instructions
  • Presbyopia
  • Red Reflex Assessment
  • Refractive Surgery
  • Retinal Detachment
  • Selective Laser
  • Trabeculoplasty
  • Squint Surgery

  • Trabeculectomy
  • Uveitis
  • Visual Impairment
  • Squint Surgery
  • Trabeculectomy
  • Uveitis
  • Visual Impairment
  • Amblyopia Therapy
  • Aqueous Shunts
  • Artificial Eye
  • Cataract Transplant
  • Cosmetic Eye Surgery
  • Dacryocystorhinostomy
  • Diabetic Maculopathy
  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Dry Eye Disease
  • Eye Redness

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